Drawing Out The Self

 

Table of Contents

 

List of Figures................................................................................
Acknowledgements.........................................................................
How to use this book.......................................................................
Preface........................................................................................
viii
x
xiii
xv

 

Chapter 1
 
My Philosophical Perspective..............................................................
Therapeutic Boundaries....................................................................
Accepting the Multi-Faceted Self..........................................................
Working with the Client’s Reality.........................................................
About “The Self”..............................................................................
1
7
9
11
12

 

Chapter 2
 
The Early History: How the Objective Approach was developed.................
Selwyn Dewdney: Canada’s First Art Therapist......................................
Dream Drawings.............................................................................
London, Ontario’s Unique Artistic Community.........................................
Early 20th Century Interest in Art and Mental Illness...............................
Introduction of Drug Therapy.............................................................
Making our Own Discoveries..............................................................
Early Theoretical Influences...............................................................
Other Art Therapy Ideas Emerge........................................................
Effect of Drug Therapies on Drawings..................................................
Irene joins the Art Therapy Program...................................................
The Power of Images.......................................................................
Frank Travis..................................................................................
Early Work....................................................................................
Movement Towards Representation.....................................................
Toward the Objective Approach..........................................................
The Shift Toward Definition and Realism...............................................
Threatening Images.........................................................................
Encouraging Realism in Art Therapy Drawings: The Case of Elda.................
A Firm Rule....................................................................................
The Ogilvie Study............................................................................
Early Use of Picture Projection...........................................................
Art Therapy Moves into the Community................................................
The Objective Approach — Summary of its Origins..................................
13
16 23
24 25
26
26
27
28
29
31
35
36
42
43
44
45
47
48
50
51
54
55
58

 

Chapter 3
 
What is Art Therapy?.......................................................................
The Use of Art Therapy....................................................................
The Power of the Image...................................................................
The Permanency of Drawings............................................................
Different Approaches to Art Therapy....................................................
Everything in the Drawing Matters......................................................
60
61
61
63
64
65

 

Chapter 4
 
Building the Relationship Between Client and Therapist...........................
The Beginnings of a Relationship........................................................
Creating Safety in the Session...........................................................
How to Create Safety in the Therapeutic Relationship.............................
Pacing and Timing..........................................................................
Supporting a Client’s Drawing Ability Level...........................................
Humour in Therapy..........................................................................
67
67
68
69
71
72
73

 

Chapter 5
 
Picture Projection............................................................................
The Development of the Picture Projection Technique...............................
Picture Projection As a Teaching Exercise with Art Therapy Students............
Projections on to the Paintings............................................................
Projecting into Pictures of Families.......................................................
Choosing your Place in the Pictures......................................................
Picture Projection with a Therapy Group................................................
Limits on Picture Projection with Groups................................................
Dealing with Strong Responses............................................................
Wrapping up a Picture Projection Session...............................................
Learning about Projection in Individual Therapy.......................................
What Happens When We Look at Paintings.............................................
Conclusion......................................................................................
75
76
77
79
83
85
85
86
88
90
91
92
94

 

Chapter 6
 

Memory Retrieval: How the Process of Drawing Fills in the Gap..................
Drawing the Childhood House.............................................................
Drawing the Past:  “My Childhood House”..............................................
Accessing Childhood Feelings..............................................................
Interconnection between Adult Drawing and Childhood Memories................
Details Matter.................................................................................
Exploring the Interior and Exterior of the House.....................................
Significance of Different Rooms..........................................................
Further Afield.................................................................................
The Power and Importance of Childhood Memories.................................
Uncovering Traumatic Memory...........................................................
The Memory Retrieval Exercise..........................................................
Different Levels of Response.............................................................
Memory Retrieval as a Group Exercise.................................................
Groups of Art Therapy Students..........................................................
Process as Product...........................................................................
Multicultural Groups.........................................................................
Abuse Survivor Groups (Adults)..........................................................
Groups of Seniors with Memory Problems.............................................
Conclusion.....................................................................................

97
99
100
102
104
105
106
107
107
108
110
111
113
114
115
116
118
119
121
122

 

Chapter7
 
The Objective Approach I: An Introduction to the Fundamentals................
Who Benefits from this Approach?.......................................................
Writing Notes on the Drawing............................................................
The Development of Sharing and Trust.................................................
The Objective Approach: Step by Step.................................................
Step 1:  The Equipment....................................................................
Step 2:  The Initial Contact...............................................................
Step 3:  Assigning the Drawing and Getting Ready to Draw.......................
Step 4:  Doing the Drawing................................................................
Step 5:  Preparing to View the Drawing................................................
Step 6:  Viewing the Drawing Objectively..............................................
Step 7:  Objective Questions and Answers.............................................
Step 8:  Moving Into the Subjective.....................................................
Step 9:  Using the Subjective Statements..............................................
Step 10:  Leaving the Drawing............................................................
Step 11:  Closing the Session.............................................................
Step 12:  Post-Session Considerations by the Therapist.............................
Severe Mental Pathology in Drawings...................................................
The Objective Approach I:  Step by Step Brief Summary...........................
126
128
129
132
134
135
136
138
140
142
144
145
156
157
160
162
165
166
168

 

Chapter 8
 
The Objective Approach II: Variations on Drawing Assignments..................
Drawing Assignment Adjustments........................................................
Refusal and Completion.....................................................................
Further Points on Intention and Outcome...............................................
Encouraging Skills............................................................................
170
184
185
186
187

 

Chapter 9
 
Case Study....................................................................................
Session 1: Introductory Interview.......................................................
Session 2: Drawing “Myself and My Family”............................................
Session 3: Drawing “The Way I See Myself / The Way Others See Me”..........
Session 4: Drawing “Me Being Good to Myself”........................................
Session 5: Drawing “Myself and my Mother in a Loving Situation”................
Session 6: Talking...........................................................................
Session 7: Drawing “Me with my Mexican Mom”......................................
Session 8: Drawing “Myself Being Angry”...............................................
Session 9: Drawing “Me and Sam”........................................................
Session 10: Review of Drawings..........................................................
189
190
191
196
199
201
206
206
209
211
214

Post Script.....................................................................................
Afterword.......................................................................................
Glossary........................................................................................

223
224
226

AppendixA
A Nest of Dolls: A Metaphor of the Self..................................................


228

AppendixB
Comparison of Psychotic and Non‑Psychotic Drawings...............................
Bibliography....................................................................................


231
241
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